Population: 90.8 million
Urban population: 52.5 million
Nationalities: Han (99.3%), and Hui (0.7%)
GDP (2007): CNY2.59 trillion
Area: 156,700 km2
Coastline: 3,000 kilometers long.
Climatic features: warm-temperate, semi-humid, monsoonal climate; influenced by the ocean, it is warmer and more humid than inland provinces; rainy summers; dry winters.
Average temperature: -5oC to -1oC in January, 24oC to – 28oC in July.
Annual average rainfall: 560 – 1,170 mm; precipitation decreases from the southeast to the northwest; 60-70 percent of the rain falls during the summer.
Physical features: situated in the lower Yellow River Valley, hills in the central region and on the eastern peninsula; plains in the north, west, and central east; narrow lowlands in the south and along the southeastern coast; faces the Bohai Gulf in the north and the Yellow Sea in the east.
Products: wheat, corn, sorghum, millet, potatoes, sweet potatos, rice, soybeans, peanuts, tea, sesame; cotton, tussah, ambary hemp; flue cured tobacco; peaches, walnuts, chestnuts, persimmons, sea products, coal, petroleum, salt.
Specialties: Yantai apples, Leling jujubes, Laiyang pears, Pingdu grapes, Dezhou watermelons.
Administrative divisions: 25 cities and 86 counties.
Neighboring areas: Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, and Hebei Provinces.
Major cities: Jinan, Yantai, Weifang, Qingdao, Zibo, Zaozhuang, Jining, Dongying, Oufu.
Tourist attractions: Confucius’ Temple in Qufu, Mount Tai, one of the historic Five Mountains in the eastern China, in Tai’an, Qingdao, a summer resort city.
The central part of the province is a mountainous highland, with the summit of Mount Taishan, 1,545 meters above sea level, being the highest point. Most hills distributed in its eastern part are at the altitude of 500 meters and lower. Plains lying in its west and north are mostly below 50 meters in elevation. The lowest area of the province is the Yellow River Delta, which is generally 2-10 meters above sea level.
Shandong’s topography is complicated and interwoven with nine types of landform, including plains, basins, hills, terraces, deltas and mountains. Mountainous area and plains account for 15.5% and 55% of the province’s territory, while hilly areas are of 13.2%, and rivers and lakes, 1.1%.
The province has a warm temperate monsoon climate with most rainfall concentrated in the hot summer. It has short spring and autumn but long winter and summer. The mean temperatures in a year are 11-14 °C. The annual average rainfall is between 550-950 mm. Natural calamities occur often.
Mainly relying on rainfall, the province’s water resource is in scarcity, with only 520 cubic meters of water available for each of its residents, accounting for 18.8% of the national average of 2,770 cubic meters per head. For the time being, the water-supply ability of the province is 19.224 billion cubic meters, including 7.844 billion cubic meters of surface water, 5.88 billion cubic meters of underground water and 5.5 billion cubic meters diverted from the Yellow River.
A total of 128 varieties of minerals, 78% of that found in China, have been discovered in the province, of which 33 have their surveyed deposits listed among the top tens of the nation: gold, natural sulphur and gypsum rank the first; petroleum, diamond, magnesite, cobalt, hafnium, and granite are the second; and kali salt, graphite, talc, bentonite, and limestone are the third. In addition, the reserves of many other minerals, such as natural gas, iron, barite, diatomite, zircon, bauxite, and refractory clay are also very affluent.
There are more than 3,100 varieties of plant, including 645 of wide cash, growing in the province. Among the 450 species of wild land vertebrate animals (accounting for 21 percent of the nation’s total), 55 are beasts, 362 are birds, eight are amphibians and 25 are reptiles. In addition, there are many species of land invertebrates, insects in particular, making the province rank No. 1 in the country in varieties of creatures in this category.
One of China’s major agricultural production bases, Shandong is known as “a warehouse of grains, cotton, and oil, and the land of fruits and aquatic products.” It’s also an important producer of wheat, cotton, peanut, tobacco, hemp, silkworms, traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and materials. The apples produced in Yantai, pears from Laiyang, peaches of Feicheng, and Leling’s golden-threaded jujubes are all famous specialties.
Shandong is rich in marine resources too. Its offshore area makes up 37% of the total surface area of the Bohai and Yellow seas, with a shoal area accounting for 15% of the nation’s total. There are about 260 species of fish and prawn in its seas, including more than 40 major cash species of fish and 100 species of shellfish. Shandong leads the country in the production of prawns, shellfishes, abalones, sea slugs and urchins. Meanwhile, with many large and medium-sized salt works, the province is also one of China’s four major salt producers. In its 266,000 ha of freshwaters, there are more than 40 species of freshwater plants and more than 70 species of fish.
The province is one of China’s important energy bases, with Shengli Oilfield being the second largest of its kind in the country, and Zhongyuan, another oilfield, having a major part on its territory. The crude oil produced in Shandong makes up one-third of the nation’s total. The province has 50,000 sq km of coalfields and its Yanteng Coalmine is one of the nation’s 10 major coal production bases. The province has a rich electricity resource. The Shandong power network is the only one of the country’s six major power networks that is operated separately on a provincial basis.
With beautiful natural landscapes and numerous historical and cultural relics, Shandong has rich tourist resources. It offers a string of tourist attractions, such as Mount Taishan and the Temple, Mansion and Cemetery of Confucius, two World Heritage sites; Lingzi, capital of the ancient Qi State; Penglai, the well known “fairyland on earth”; Mount Laoshan, a sacred land of Taoism; Weifang, the “world capital of kites”; Qingdao, a charming coastal city famous for its annual International Beer Fair; Yantai, known worldwide as a wine producer; Rongcheng, a place considered as “the edge of the world” by ancient Chinese; Jinan, the provincial capital honored as “the city of springs”; and the site for watching the wonderful scene of the torrential Yellow River running into the sea.